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15 Jan 2019

A situation in which everyone receives a just reward. Even though this situation rarely occurs in real life, it has been suggested that people need to operate on the basis of a JUST-WORLD HYPOTHESIS.

15 Jan 2019

An idea or method of teaching that stimulates further thinking and discovery. Now widely used as a rule-of-thumb for making a decision.

15 Jan 2019

In humans and higher animals, the cell formed by the union of the sperm cell and the egg cell of the parents and from which a new individual will emerge.

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15 Jan 2019

A form of CONGENITAL mental retardation which is due to a genetic abnormality. It is accompanied by certain facial characteristics, popularly thought to be Asiatic (hence also the term MONGOLISM). Apparently Down’s Syndrome occurs most frequently in children of older mothers.

15 Jan 2019

The most common category of PSYCHOSIS and one which covers a wide variety of symptoms and BEHAVIOUR. The term schizophrenia comes from the Greek words schizo (split) and phrenia (mind) and this is the source of an almost universal popular misconception. Split mind (or SPLIT PERSONALITY) is the popular term for MULTIPLE PERSONALITY, in which the split occurs between what appear to be different personalities within the same person. The split in schizophrenia however is between the processes of thinking and feeling within the same person, so that the harmony normally found between a person’s thought, feelings and actions is disrupted. A schizophrenic may smile or show no EMOTION at all when discussing a tragic event, for instance. Difficulties in communication with others. DELUSIONS and HALLUCINATIONS are also common symptoms of schizophrenia.

14 Jan 2019

In PSYCHOANALYSIS, a DEFENCE MECHANISM and a crucial concept in Freudian theory. The essence of repression is the blotting out from CONSCIOUS awareness of disturbing feelings and impulses arising from the ID. They are submerged in the UNCONSCIOUS where they invariably get up to mischief.

Repression is at the root of many NEUROSES including, most strikingly. AMNESIA. Indeed FREUD considered repression the price we pay for civilisation, and psychoanalysis, by making the unconscious conscious, the only way to come to terms with this dilemma. Contrast with INHIBITION.

14 Jan 2019

In STATISTICS it is a MEASURE OF CENTRAL TENDENCY: the most frequently occurring value in a group of numbers.